Special Eurobarometer 452: Media pluralism and democracy


In light of the importance of media plurality and freedom, the Directorate General for Justice and Consumers commissioned the following Eurobarometer survey to explore citizens’ opinions about the diversity of views available in the media, and their perceptions of media independence. The survey was carried out between 24 September and 3 October 2016 in the 28 Member States of the European Union. 27,768 EU citizens from different social and demographic categories were interviewed face-to-face at home and in their native language. The survey covers views about: the variety of opinions presented in the media; the perceptions of the independence of both the general and public service media; the trust in the information provided by the media; the awareness of the national media regulator and opinions about its independence; the participation in debates on social media; online encounters with hate speech and threats and the influence this has on participation.

The results by volumes are distributed as follows:
  • Volume A: Countries
  • Volume AA: Groups of countries
  • Volume A' (AP): Trends
  • Volume AA' (AAP): Trends of groups of countries
  • Volume B: EU/socio-demographics
  • Volume C: Country/socio-demographics
    Researchers may also contact GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences: http://www.gesis.org/en/home/
Release Date
Geographical Coverage
Greece, Austria, Bulgaria, Spain, Lithuania, Malta, Germany, Sweden, Slovenia, Luxembourg, Italy, Ireland, Cyprus, Hungary, Finland, Denmark, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Czech Republic, Romania, Portugal, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Belgium, France, Slovakia, Croatia
Version Description
Version 1.0

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